Tag Archives: Healthcare

How Small is a Micron?*


HEPA VS. ULPA IN A CLEANROOM 1. This large circle represents the cross section of a human hair, with an average visible diameter of 75μm. 2. This smaller circle, still visible to the human eye, represents a 50μm diameter particle. 3. This represents a 0.3μm diameter particle. HEPA filters remove over 99.97% 4. This represents [Read More…]

Smoking Kills – But Maybe Not in the Way You Think

Doctor is comparing electronic vaporizer and conventional tobacco cigarette.

Almost two years ago, we wrote a short article on the FDA regulation of a nascent industry, one that has the FDA sounding the alarm regarding contamination from carcinogens and the vaporizing of metal nanoparticles. Despite our concerns – and those of the FDA – this industry is still around, growing, and has set its [Read More…]

How The Promise of Stem Cell Therapy Can Blind Us to its Danger

stem cell therapy

In the Worlds Fair Exposition of 1893, one young entrepreneur, Clark Stanley, stood before an excited crowd of onlookers and plunged his hand into a sack of live rattlesnakes. Pulling out an unfortunate herpetological victim, he sliced it open and, in a technique that was about as far from aseptic processing and devoid of microbial [Read More…]

Endotoxins: A Danger to Pharmaceutical & Medical Device Manufacturing Industries

Bacteria low endo

Introduction Pharmaceutical and medical device manufacturing personnel must cope with endotoxins – a contamination source unique to their industries.  Endotoxins, also known as pyrogens, originate from dead (!) gram negative bacteria. When this strain of bacteria are killed by antibacterial reagents (say phenolic or quaternary ammonium compounds), radiation, steam sterilization, etc. the cell wall detritus [Read More…]

Welcome to the New Dawn of Cloning

Reproduction used to be simple. Boy meets girl. Egg meets sperm. Nine months, one baby shower, and a whole lot of trips to Buy Buy Baby later, a new addition arrives to much billing and cooing by the proud grandparents. Oh those halcyon days. Today, the landscape is so much more nuanced as advances in [Read More…]

Ancient and Futuristic – What is the Role of the Cleanroom in Advanced Sericulture?

Silk Cocoons with Worm

We have a riddle for you: what is both ancient and futuristic, biodegradable and naturally sustainable, is delicately engineered in a cleanroom with a tensile strength five times that of steel, is a simple formulation but has applications in materials science, medicine, and reforestation? Need some more clues? It is edible, reintegrating into the human [Read More…]

How Reprocessed Duodenoscopes Represent a Challenge in Biomedical Contamination Control.

Duodenum villus

Update: Now also featured on Cleanroom Technology  According to science writer Mary Roach in her eye-opening and entertaining book Gulp: Adventures on the Alimentary Canal, early anatomists had an almost child-like curiosity with the inner workings of the human body. Engaging with it as cartographers of an unexplored continent they staked their claims to its [Read More…]

Disinfection of Cleanroom Surfaces With Hydrogen Peroxide

Disinfection of Surfaces with Hydrogen Peroxide

Disinfection of Surfaces with Hydrogen Peroxide Of all the contamination control activities in a cleanroom, perhaps the most critical are disinfection procedures. That’s because human health depends on the quality and thoroughness of a surface disinfection wipedown. Many solutions can be considered for surface disinfection, but hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite (bleach) rate special attention. [Read More…]

Disinfection of Cleanroom Surfaces With Bleach


A previous article in this series discussed disinfection of surfaces with hydrogen peroxide.  We turn our attention now to bleach as another very effective treatment agent. Most people understand that ordinary household bleach – a 5.5% solution of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) in water – is a strong disinfecting agent.  In neutral or slightly acidic solutions the active [Read More…]

Kicking Back with Kratom – and Salmonella?

Mitragyna speciosa leaf on white background

In his frequently hilarious and always engaging 2006 travelogue, Getting Stoned with Savages: A Trip Through the Islands of Fiji and Vanuatu, memoirist J. Maarten Troost describes his multi-year sojourn in a culture that kicks back after a long day’s spear fishing in the Pacific island sun with a rather unique herbal beverage. Think of [Read More…]